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New Imperialism

What happened once the English were there?

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The New Imperialism

            IMPERIALISM IS THE EXTENSION OF SOVEREIGNTY OR CONTROL BY ONE PEOPLE OVER ANOTHER. 

 - IT WAS MOSTLY DORMANT IN THE WEST DURING MOST OF THE MIDDLE AGES.

 - IT FLOURISHED DURING THE AGE OF EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY (1450-1650), PARTICULARLY IN THE AMERICAS AND PARTS OF ASIA.

 - A GENERAL DECLINE OCCURRED IN IMPERIALISM DURING THE AGE OF METTERNICH, WITH GOVERNMENTS CONCENTRATING PRIMARILY ON INTERNAL PROBLEMS.

- THE REVIVAL OF IMPERIALISM - THE "NEW IMPERIALISM" TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 1870 AND 1914.

- REASONS FOR THE "NEW IMPERIALISM":

 - ECONOMICS WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT SINGLE FACTOR IN THIS "NEW IMPERIALISM." MUCH OF THIS ECONOMIC EMPHASIS WAS BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, WHICH CREATED LARGE SURPLUSES OF EUROPEAN CAPITAL AND HEAVY DEMANDS FOR RAW MATERIALS. ADDITIONALLY, IT BROUGHT ABOUT THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL IN THE MAJOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WHICH SOUGHT INVESTMENT ABROAD.

 - NATIONALISM WAS ANOTHER POWERFUL FACTOR. SOCIAL DARWINISM, WITH ITS CONCEPT OF "SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST" AND THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE "WHITE MAN'S BURDEN" MADE POPULAR BY THE ENGLISHMAN RUDYARD KIPLING CONTRIBUTED TO THE SPIRIT OF NATIONALISM IN EXTENDING COLONIALISM. THERE WAS ALSO POLITICAL PRESTIGE IN HAVING COLONIES AS IMPERIALISM BECAME A RACE TO ACQUIRE MORE IN THE SPIRIT OF NATIONALISM.

 - A THIRD REASON FOR THIS "NEW" IMPERIALISM WAS MILITARY.  MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS IN EACH MAJOR COUNTRY WIELDED GREAT POLITICAL POWER, AND THEY EMPHASIZED THE NEED, WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE GOVERNMENTS, OF CONTROLLING STRATEGIC AREAS AND ESTABLISHING KEY MILITARY BASES.

 - A FOURTH REASON WAS HUMANITARIAN/RELIGIOUS, WHICH OFTEN BECAME INTERTWINED WITH NATIONALISM.

- INDIA

 - AS YOU RECALL, AT THE END OF THE SEVEN YEARS WAR IN 1763, GREAT BRITAIN HAD WON THE STRUGGLE FOR EMPIRE IN INDIA OVER FRANCE.  THE BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY WAS VERY INFLUENTIAL IN ADVERTISING THIS COLONY.

 - BRITISH POLICY BECAME ONE OF EXPLOITING INDIA ECONOMICALLY.

 - INDIAN NATIONALISM WAS MARKED BY THE SEPOY REBELLION OF 1857-58 AGAINST BRITISH RULE, WHICH WAS NOT SUCCESSFUL, ALTHOUGH THIS REBELLION LED TO REFORM IN INDIA BY THE BRITISH.

 - IN 1885, THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS ESTABLISHED AS A FURTHER MANIFESTATION OF THE GROWING NATIONALISM IN INDIA.

 - IN W.W. I, INDIA DID REMAIN LOYAL TO GREAT BRITAIN AND SUPPORTED HER WAR EFFORT IN MANPOWER AND MONEY.

- ALSO INCLUDED IN GREAT BRITAIN'S SOUTHEAST AFRICAN TERRITORIES WAS RHODESIA, NAMED AFTER CECIL RHODES. RHODES WAS AN "EMPIRE BUILDER" WHO DID MUCH TO STRENGTHEN BRITISH IMPERIALISM.

http://www.wpunj.edu/~history/study/ws2/set10b.htm

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